The memory of history
Kalbajar is known as an ancient land preserving its history, culture for centuries. Wherever you go in this great dwelling place you will see caves, castles, monuments being ancient dwelling places. These memories, which exposed to hard tests of history, reached the danger of being completely ruined by human hands, which made them. Some of them have been destroyed completely. However, it is wonder that the castles, caves being the memory of history saved themselves and lived several thousand years until our century.
Before classifying the castles in the territory of Kalbajar we should mention that the secrets of these places were ruined once more before being revealed. Though the castles, temples, which are the memories of the years and centuries, could endure the occupation of strangers, they nearly lost their precedence and analogue.
The territory of Kalbajar is called high mountainous and foothills, from geographical standpoint. Ancient monuments and castles were naturally constructed on the highest points of dwelling places, at the places where one could hardly reach, so that the effects of enemy attacks be less and to create an opportunity for beating off the forthcoming danger. From this point of view, Kalbajar was the museum of historical monuments comprised of castles and towers. To be more precisely, Kalbajar being the live museum of nature was not only the land of unlike beauties, but also a place which was matchless as a great place.
The well-known science workers, art workers , historians, archeologists, wise men spoke about the castles, monuments of Kalbajar in their books in volumes, walked about that mountains step by step and entrust this great dwelling place to present and future generation. It is a pity that this place was not kept safe, our holy places were oppressed, ruined by our enemy as we were, the Albanian writings, which were on remained castles and stones were blotted out and armenialized during the Former Soviet period. Recalling the aforesaid, we would like to mention that Khudu Mammadov, Mirali Gashgay, Niyazi Ibrahimov, Gudrat Ismayilov, Ziya Bunyadov, Budag Budagov and other several patriots, educated men and scientists, who called Kalbajar as “The Second Gobustan of Azerbaijan”, demanded the protection of Kalbajar by taking it under control, because the castles and monuments, where the history of Turks lived, Kalbajar, which was the dwelling place of the unislamized ancestors of Albans was being occupied and armenialized by traitorous neighbors in a cultural way.
Caucasian Albania always was in the spotlight. In Caucasus there were a lot of people’s dwellings and beautiful places such as Kalbajar dated several centuries ago. Every person who came here appreciated this beauty in their own way. For example, V.Abikh, who is considered to be the father of Caucasian geology, was one of such people. His thoughts about Kalbajar are the most original and unique among all assessments given to Kalbajar. “Only those who did not contemplate along Terter River can admire the beauty of Switzerland”, he said.
Let’s pay attention to the fortresses located in the territory of Kalbajar. There remained a lot of parts of fortresses in this territory until now. Armenians utterly destroyed these fortresses, for example, “Loh”, “Galaboynu”, “Jomard” etc. Relatively undamaged fortress is “Loh”. The name of the fortress supplemented its form. The rear side of the fortress resembled camel’s neck. It was not so easy to reach the top of the fortress. It was impossible to look down from the path at the front side of the fortress by which one person could pass with much ado holding on to the fortress; it was precipitous and steep. In the opinion of the scientists who explored the fortresses, they were built on caravan ways to observe these ways. There are a lot of hewed wells 3-5 metres deep on the top of “Loh” fortress in which either provisions or water was kept. In these wells there grew gigantic oak trees the diameter of which was approximately 30-40 sm. There was laid on water to the top of the fortress from some spring. There were discovered 2 caves towards Lev River that are considered to be the most ancient people’s dwelling. Any food could be kept at the cave for a month since it was cold in summer and warm in winter. Despite there is the Albanian cross on the gravestones and monument located at “Khos Meshasi” there is no such cross in “Loh” fortress located nearby. Thus, it can be said that “Loh” fortress is one of the people’s dwellings existed long before the Albanians.
The most highly situated fortress among Kalbajari fortresses is “Jomard”. It was known as “Jomard” fortress because it had been constructed on the top of the rock considerably higher than Jomard village and situated on the way leading to Goturlu that is considered to be the largest area for its territory (subsequently it was named Tutguchay). The Kalbajari side of the fortress was such bold cliff that no bird could perch here. Its right-hand side, i.e. Nachafali village was a wall built from stones and rocks. There are more ruins than in “Loh” fortress. “Garachanli” fortress is located a bit higher than Kalbajar, not far from Garachanli village, on the left side of the road leading to Istisu from Kalbajar, on the left bank of Terter River. It is located in approximately 7-8 km from Kalbajar. There was water supply to this observation post known as “Galacha”. There are a lot of pebbled places until Garachanli River from the right-hand side of the fortress. There was made a secret passage to the fortress under these pebbled places. This secret passage went down to the part of the river which formed the pool.
There were a lot of caves under the cliffs situated at the right-hand side of “Garachanli” fortress. There was hot and mineral water on the bank of Terter River. There was another miracle that attracts attention: every 5-6 minutes there sometimes gushed out pure mineral water and sometimes cold clear water. Subsequently, the people, who wanted to find here hot water, lost Narzan.
One of the most heavily destroyed and ruined fortresses was “Galaboynu” fortress. It most likely resembled the ruins of a very large village.
We should speak more about “Khudadang” monumental complex since the peculiarities of this fortress considerably differ from other ones. This monumental complex known as “Khudadang” is located to the east from Kalbajar, below Baglipaya village that is on the arterial road Agdara-Kalbajar, i.e. at the side of Agdara, in 29 km from Kalbajar.
There are various versions concerning the monument. In accordance with one of them, the ruler of Khachin-Arsakh, Albanian commander Hasan Jalal constructed this monument in honor of his daughter Arzu Khatun. In accordance with the suppositions, the monument was constructed by Albanians from Arshaki dynasty and dated 4th millennium BC. It is interesting that there were not used wooden materials in construction of these buildings the roof of which was in the form of cupola. There were a lot of pictures and images painted with oil colors on the building. Armenians from Agdara and Basarkecher obliterated these inscriptions with axe and tried to wipe our name from the history.
Another interesting thing is that where from and how did the gigantic stones that were used in construction of the monument appear in this territory. Since, there are neither rocky places not rock quarries nearby. It is impossible that these gigantic stones were brought here from “another planet”. In the result of investigation there was discovered that these stones were accumulated in a valley and formed from crystallized clay. There are approximately 3 km from the monument to “rock quarry”. The very source was discovered in 1975-76. There remained the ruins of the bridge constructed at that time in this place known as “Damirchi Kahasi”.
It is obvious to everyone how Armenians “protected” this monument in recent years. By order of secretary of Agdara RPC the monumental complex was fenced in, and despite the fact that we destroyed these fences, they did a lot. Armenians, who demonstrated in foreign countries a movie about the monument, presented Albanian monument as Armenian church with unsurpassed skills and told that Turks destroyed “the ancient monument of material culture of Arsah” “with a heavy heart”.
Albanian temple remained in the most people’s dwellings in Kalbajar. Monuments in Moz, Fatallar, Agjakand, Gamishli, Otagli, Baglipaya, Takagayasi, Guzeychirkin, Ashagi and Yukhari Khach, Sinigkilsa, Kilsali and Kilsa villages and in Zar, Moz Garachanli and Gush Yuvasi, Chapli and Zivel belonged to Albanians, and Armenians claimed them as their own.
One of these temples was situated on the bank of Terter River in the place known as “Bulanig Su”. Despite the fact that the educated people and leadership investigated the monument that was disregarded for a long time, academic institutions of the Republic met it with indifference and it may be said that the monument was not appreciated. Such monuments help us to confirm ourselves and our roots. Since “Albanian Temple” was utterly destroyed and located in midwood it was disregarded for a long time. After investigation of the monument one day Armenians erased the Albanian traces from the monument.
Along with such temples in Kalbajar there are a lot of cemeteries the age of which is 7-8 thousand years. However, the most ancient are petroglyphs. Yalli dance, human figures, celestial bodies, domestic animals depicted on the rocks are the evidence of the fact that this place was one of the most ancient people’s dwellings.
Considerable part of territory of Kalbajar had the same border with Basarkechar (Vardenis) district of Goycha region of the state later called Armenia. The petroglyphs were in that regions. Some people did not realize it when the stones were brought to the Kalbajari Historical and Regional Ethnography Museum and saying “why were these stones brought here?” they cancelled out the achieved results by their primitive thinking. But the people who knew Armenians’ character, tried to save our treasures. Thus, the works remained unfinished. Besides, 2800 hectares of Kalbajari soil were presented to Armenia that showed the attitude of soviet regime not only to Kalbajar but to the entire Azerbaijan. That soil was a real treasure both on the surface and inside. The petroglyphs not far from “Girmizi Tepe” and “Davagozu Dagi” were also presented as a gift to Armenians by Soviet Government. The most valuable obsidian deposits were located in the territory of Kalbajar.